Wudang Taoism

Before the Northern Song Dynasty, Wudang Mountain Taoism had no obvious sectarian distinction. In terms of their religious behavior, they are roughly divided into Danding School and Fulu School.

Its obvious division of sects should begin when the Southern Song Dynasty and Jin Yuan confronted each other. The Quanzhen School, the Shangqing Wulong School, the Zhengyi School, and the Qingwei School, which belong to the Quanzhen School and the Zhengyi and Two Dao Schools, have been preaching and teaching in Wudang Mountain for a long time. Although these Taoist sects have different teachings, they are recognized by the respect of Zhenwu, and the integration of different degrees is their mainstream.


Quanzhen School

Also known as Quanzhen religion, Quanzhen Taoism. Together with Zhengyi, they are the two major sects of Taoism after the Yuan Dynasty. In the seventh year of Jin Dading (1167), Wang Zhe, a native of Xianyang, Shaanxi, founded this school. Advocates the unity of three religions. The tenets of the teachings take “clear mind and set one’s mind, hold one’s heart and keep one’s mind, keep one’s spirit and consolidate qi” as “true work”, “relieve the poor and relieve the suffering, put others first, and be selfless with things” as “true practice”; real. The main classics of the school include “The Classic of Virtue Purity”, “The Heart Sutra of Ship Ruo”, “The Path of Filial Piety” and so on. In the twelfth year of Yuan Zhiyuan (1275), Wang Sizhen came to Wudang Mountain to start his family and teach more than 100 disciples.


Zhengyi School

Also known as Zhengyi School, is the general term for all Taoist talisman schools. It was originally called Five Dou Rice, which was created by Zhang Ling at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Later, Zhang Ling was honored as the Heavenly Master, so it is also called “Heavenly Master School”. After the Tang and Song Dynasties, the Northern and Southern Tianshi Taoism merged with Taoist schools such as Shangqing and Lingbao. In the eighth year of Emperor Chengzong’s Dade reign (1304), Zhang Yicai, a descendant of the thirty-eighth generation of Zhangling, was named “Zhengyi Cult Master”, and he was in charge of the three mountain talismans, namely Longhu Mountain, Gezao Mountain and Maoshan Mountain. Since then, all Taoist talisman sects are collectively referred to as Zhengyi. Mainly uphold “Zheng Yi Jing”, draw talismans, chant mantras, exorcise ghosts and demons, pray for blessings and disasters, etc. This school was introduced into Wudang Mountain after the end of the Han Dynasty, and it was the main Taoist school in Wudang Mountain in the Ming Dynasty.


The Shangqing School

was founded during the Eastern Jin Dynasty. It was first spread in the Jiangnan area. Since Tao Hongjing, the sect has mainly been active in the Maoshan area of ​​Jiangsu, so it is also called “Maoshan Sect”. The Shangqing School regards the “Huang Ting Jing” as its main internal revision theory, and calls “The Great Cave Classic”, “The Female One Five Old Treasure Classics” and “The Great Suling of Taishang” as the “Three Wonders of Taoists”. Taishang Daojun, Taiwei Tiandijun, Housheng Jinque Emperor, Taishang Laojun are the supreme gods. In the Northern Song Dynasty, there was the Shangqing Jade Immortal Temple in Wudang Mountain, but due to the disappearance of the classics, the inheritance of the Shangqing School in Wudang Mountain before the Northern Song Dynasty could not be rebuild. In the 11th year of Shaoxing in the Southern Song Dynasty (1141), Sun Jiran, a Taoist priest of Maoshan Temple, climbed Wudang Mountain and revived the temples of Wulong and Zhuguang. He taught his disciples the methods of Wulei in the Qing Dynasty. The school takes Wudang Mountain Wulong Temple as the main teaching and activity place, so it is also called “Shangqing Wulong School.”

Qing Wei school

It is a talisman sect with great influence among the folks of Song and Yuan Dynasties. It mainly evolved from the Shangqing sect. It claims that its talisman Taoism originated from the Tianzun of Qingwei, so it is named after Qinghui. Zhang Yuchu’s “Ten Rules of Taoism” stated: “Qingwei descended from the two divisions of Wei (Hua Cun) and Zu (Shu), then Zhu (Dongyuan), Li (Shaowei), Nan (Bi Dao), Huang (Shun) Shen teachers, it is especially prosperous. All the texts of Fuzhang Jingdao Zhai Falei method are derived from the rate of many Huang (Shun Shen).” It was popular in the south during the Song and Yuan Dynasties. The main scriptures of the school include “Qingwei Dan Jue”, “Qingwei Zhai Fa”, “Qingwei Xianpu”, etc. There are also 268 volumes of “Dao Fa Hui Yuan”, which describe the purpose, Tao methods, fasting ritual, The precepts, etc., mostly came from the hands of Huang Shunshen. It can be seen that Huang Shunshen is the core and the master of the Qingwei faction. Huang Shunshen was later divided into the southern branch, headed by Xiong Daohui; the northern branch was headed by Zhang Daogui, with Wudang Mountain as the center of dissemination, and hundreds of apprentices were taught. Zhang Daogui originally studied under Wang Zhenchang and was a Taoist priest of the Quanzhen School. Later, he and Ye Yunlai and Liu Daoming were the same teachers as Huang Shunshen. After completing his studies, he returned to Wudang Mountain to teach apprentices, and passed the Qingwei method to Zhang Shouqing. Zhang Shouqing was also a Quanzhen Taoist priest, and he was taught by Wu Dang Lu Dayou. Therefore, the northern branch of Zhang Daogui and Zhang Shouqing should be a fusion of Quanzhen and Qing Hui, and named “Wudang Qingwei School”. Zhang Shouqing taught 4,000 apprentices in more than 20 years. After the mid-Yuan Dynasty, Taoist priests from Tianyi Zhenqing Palace, Zixiao Palace, Taihe Palace and other palaces were mostly disciples of Zhang Shouqing.


San Feng School

At the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, the famous Taoist Zhang Sanfeng came to Wudang Mountain, chose a place to build a temple, taught his disciples, and founded the Sanfeng School. This school advocates the integration of the three religions, self-cultivation for the benefit of others, and worship of the true god of martial arts. Its inheritance genealogy is: Zhang Sanfeng passed on Lu Qiuyun, Liu Guquan, Yang Shancheng, Zhou Zhende, Li Xingzhi, Qiu Xuanqing; Li Xingzhi passed on Zidaoren and Shu Fuchu; Qiu Xuanqing passed on Yan Shanming, Pu Shanyuan, Ma Shanning; Pu Shanyuan also passed on Yibenzhong.

There are eight sects founded by Zhang Sanfeng in the “General Book of Zhuzhen Sects”: The first is the Natural Sect, whose genealogy is as follows: “Xuanyun is melodious and quiet, clear and desolate, and the moon is full of surrendering rituals. Dancheng. Yuanxuan Ming is the most fundamental, and the great details are subtle and subtle, and you can only reach Xiyi if you understand the non-existent.” The second is the Sanfeng Patriarch’s natural school, whose genealogy is spread as follows: “Only the sect of Tao, if you keep it, you can prosper. , The merits and virtues go to Shengtai, and the rites are immortal for all ages. Benjing follows Xuanjiao, longevity and longevity are forever prosperous. The third is the Sanfeng School, whose genealogy is as follows: “Morality is grand and tolerant, truly guards Changqing, ten thousand strong effort is the first, and religion comes to teach Fang Chun. The stars and moon shine in the sky, keep quiet and practice merit, and one virtue is immeasurable. Mysterious principles are the most benevolent and loyal.” The Siyi Sanfeng School’s genealogy is as follows: “The Xuanyun Passage is quiet, the white cranes take advantage of the emptiness to look at the eyes, the teachers are full of moon and convert to the rites, and hold a tube of Dan sincerity in their bodies. Entering Miaoyuan, Lingyuan Xinglang stored the pot and heaven, and the Marquis of Gong arrived in Japan to make promises, and then realized that the truth can be passed on.” The Wuyi Sanfeng School’s genealogy is: “The Dao is heroic and virtuous, and it is true and eternal. Longevity, sects teach Fangchun”. The sixth is the Sanfeng Patriarch’s Rixin School, whose genealogy is as follows: “The Dao should always be obtained, and the teaching will always be true. A copy of the sun comes, and it is the same as Jingde and Xuanfeng.” The seventh is the Rixin School, and its genealogy is as follows: “Chonghe is rooted in the sky, cultivates the Yishu deeply, treasures the original body, and returns to auspicious years.” The eighth is the Penglai School, the founder of Sanfeng, and its genealogy is: ” Yuantong is smart and quick to use, it is pure cultivation and seeking truth, Penglai meeting of alchemy body, Baoding refining into gold”.

Quanzhen Longmen School

It was founded by Qiu Chuji, a disciple of Wang Chongyang, and it is unknown when it was introduced. Wudang Mountain in the Ming Dynasty has already inherited this school. In the second year of Emperor Kangxi (1669), Wang Changyue, the “ancestor of Zhongxing” of the Quanzhen Longmen School, led his disciples to preach from Beijing to the south. The subject of Taoism. The genealogy of its spread is: “The morality is profound and quiet, the truth always guards the Taiqing, the copy of the sun comes, and the teaching is eternal. Ning. Living and correcting benevolence and righteousness, Chaosheng Yunhui Deng, Huanggui in the great wonder, the Holy Body is fully diligent. Void universe is beautiful, Jinmu surnames meet, mountains and seas meet, dragons and tigers meet, lotus blossoms and new treasures. Xiangguangsheng, the eternal name of immortals, the three realms are all relatives.” In the early Qing Dynasty, the Taoist power of Wudang Mountain Taoism changed, and the Quanzhen School replaced the Zhengyi School and occupied the main position in the whole mountain. Two years after Emperor Kangxi, the Taoist priests of the Quanzhen Longmen sect spread all over the temples of Wudang Mountain, which have continued to this day.


Wudang Xuanwu School

In the eleventh year of Yongle (1413), the imperial court overhauled the palace view in Wudang Mountain, and Zhang Yuqing, a Taoist priest from the Zhengyi School who passed on the teachings of the Heavenly Master, was ordered to go to Xijiang, Jiangxi, Huguang, Shanxi, Henan, Shaanxi and other provinces and Yingtianfu to select four Taoist priests. More than 100 people came to Wudang Mountain to conduct Taoism, and among them, more than 20 people were selected to serve as mentors and abbots of various palaces. These Taoist schools all take Zhenwu as their highest idol, cite Zhang Sanfeng as “my ancestor”, and are good at Fuluzhaijiao. They are collectively called “Zhenwu Xuanwu School”. However, each Taoist sect still accepts disciples and maintains their respective inheritance relationship. In 1989, the Wudang Mountain Taoist Association repeated the meaning of the name of the “Zhenwu Xuanwu School” formed in the Ming Dynasty. It was renamed the “Wudang Xuanwu School” in conjunction with the public discussion, and held a transmission ceremony in Taihe and Zixiao Ergong.

The school has many classics, with Zhenwu Jing as the main classic, and Zhenwu as the “Xuantian God”. He advocated the integration of the three religions, respected Zhenwu as the “Patriarch of the Three Religions”, rebuilt the inner alchemy, believed in many techniques, and called Zhenwu the “Master of All Ways”. Its genealogy is: “Xuanyuan has one ambition, and seeks morality and vitality. According to the mysterious principles, we hope that Taijingcheng will be successful. Wudang Xingfa School is only the sect of Xianzun. The great mountain is natural, and the five dragons are auspicious. Yuxu grand plan Exhibition, the biography of Sanfeng Dan skills. Nanyan holds the holy truth, Zixiao Yongjichang.”

Langmei School

For the Wudang Mountain Benshan faction. In the tenth year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1412), Sun Biyun, the abbot of Nanyan Palace of Wudang Mountain, was ordered to create this school. His disciples called him “Biyun Patriarch”. In the Ming Dynasty, there were quite a lot of people who inherited this school. The genealogy of its spread is: “Bishan spreads the sun and the moon, guards the Taoism and nature, understands the profound virtues, clears the micro and ancient Taiyuan, is really quiet and long, religious blessings and longevity, celebrates the clouds and conquers the Han, and reaches the great auspiciousness.”

In addition, there were Hao Zucha School, Lao Huashan School, Jingyi School, Sanmao School, Da Mao School, Lv Zu Penglai School, Yushan School, Huashan School, Shenxiao School and other Taoist sects in Wudang Mountain in the past dynasties.

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